Les Misérables
Winner of over 100 international awards and seen by over 70 million, this musical phenomenon is an epic tale of passion and redemption in the throes of revolution.
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Show Essentials
+ Ensemble

Full Synopsis

Act One

Lights up on a chain gang in early nineteenth century France. The men do hard labor. One prisoner, referred to as "number 24601," appears. His name is Jean Valjean, and he was imprisoned for stealing a loaf of bread for his sister's starving child. He is finally being released, but Javert, an overzealous policeman, reminds him that he will always be a sinner. Because he is branded as a former criminal, it is impossible for Valjean to find work. Starving again, he is taken in by a bishop and fed, but he steals some silver and flees into the night... right back into the custody of the police. The bishop learns of his plight and tells the police that he made of the silver a gift, effectively buying Valjean's soul for God; the former prisoner vows to be a good citizen ("Prologue").

Seven years later, the poor of France are starving and desperate. Inside a factory at Montreuil, a group of women are desperate to hold on to their jobs. A young woman, Fantine, will not respond to the foreman's sexual advances. The other women discover that she has a daughter out of wedlock who lives with an innkeeper in the country, and worry that Fantine's trouble will become their trouble. A fight breaks out, and the mayor and factory owner — Valjean in disguise — instructs the foreman to sort it out. He unfairly fires Fantine ("At the End of the Day"). Desperate and alone, Fantine remembers her summer of love and the man who broke his promises that brought her to this point in life ("I Dreamed a Dream").

Fantine finds herself in the red-light district, surrounded by sailors and whores. She tries to sell her last possessions so that she may have money for her daughter, Cosette, to see a doctor, but the Madame to whom she sells her things will not give her a price. Fantine is forced to sell her hair and then, finally, herself. However, when the time comes, she cannot bring herself to do it and gets into a fight with the gentleman. Javert appears and arrests Fantine, showing her no mercy. Valjean sees her and recognizes that her misfortune is partially his doing, so he has her taken to the hospital ("The Docks").

Next, a cart crashes, and Valjean miraculously lifts it to free the man trapped underneath. Valjean's feat of strength reminds Javert of that of a fugitive prisoner he knew many years ago, but assures Valjean that the man has been recaptured and awaits trial ("Cart Crash"). Valjean wrestles with a moral dilemma: if he lets the other man take the fall for him, he will finally be free, and the factory workers dependent upon him will be secure; however, he will also be damned and will have reneged on his promised life for God. He decides that he cannot stay silent and goes to the court, revealing his identity before rushing away to Fantine's hospital ("Who Am I?")

At the hospital, Fantine is delirious, and Valjean promises to adopt Cosette as Fatine takes her final breath ("Fantine's Death"). Javert finds Valjean in the hospital and still refuses to show any mercy, despite Valjean's explanation that he must rescue the child. Javert believes that any man who is a sinner will always be a sinner. The two men fight, and Valjean manages to escape.

At an inn miles away, Cosette dreams of a happier life ("Castle on a Cloud"). The greedy and evil Mme. Thenardier, the innkeeper's wife, interrupts her wistful fantasy. Thenardier's young daughter, Eponine, is there as well. Mme. sends a frightened Cosette out to the well in the dark ("Little Cosette"). The innkeeper, Thenardier, revels with the patrons who are filling his establishment. As they get drunker and drunker, the host enumerates the many ways that he cuts corners and takes advantage of his customers ("The Innkeeper's Song"). Valjean meets the young girl wandering in the woods and brings her back to the inn. He haggles with the Thenardiers over their "darling Cosette;" the couple finally settles on a price and turns the child over to Valjean ("The Bargain").

Ten years pass, and we find ourselves in the teeming, squalid streets of Paris. The beggars, led by a young boy named Gavroche, continue to suffer. Everyone is on edge ("The Beggars"). Into their midst come the young revolutionaries, Marius and Enjolras; they seek justice from the powers in France. Only one politician cares for the poor: LeMarque, but he is on his deathbed. The students plan to use his death as a catalyst for revolution. Thenardier, no longer an innkeeper, leads a gang of criminals on the street corner. Eponine, now all grown up, is torn between loyalty to her parents and her attraction to her old friend, Marius. Suddenly, Valjean and Cosette appear; Thenardier recognizes Valjean and asks for money. Valjean's shirt is ripped open in the ensuing scuffle, exposing the tattoo of his prisoner number. Javert arrives but does not recognize Valjean, telling him to be careful on the street ("The Robbery"). Valjean and Cosette, who had run into Marius, disappear in short order, and Thenardier reports to Javert about the brand on the stranger's chest; the obsessed lawman wonders if it could be the same man he has sought all these years. Javert swears that he will never rest until Valjean is behind bars ("Stars").

Elsewhere, Marius meets Eponine to ask her to find the young girl with whom he met earlier. Eponine recalls her childhood with Cosette, but mentions nothing. Out of her love for Marius, she eventually agrees to help him.

At a neighboring inn, revolutionaries discuss their plans and tease Marius about his falling in love for the first time. They prepare for their student revolution ("The ABC Café"). Barricades will rise as they take to the streets, and all will come when called. As they cheer, Gavroche rushes in to inform them that LeMarque has passed. Enjolras, recognizing the sign to begin, leads the group in a rousing cry to action ("The People's Song").

Later, on the Rue Plumet, Cosette contemplates her past life, which she cannot seem to remember, and all of her father's secrets ("Rue Plumet"). Eponine leads Marius to the street and her home. She tells of her unrequited love for Marius, who exchanges affectionate words with Cosette ("A Heart Full of Love"). Suddenly, one of Thenardier's men come to rob the house of Valjean, but Eponine vows to protect Marius instead of helping her father. When her father refuses to be dissuaded, she screams and the robbers make for the sewers in order to escape ("The Attack on Rue Plumet"). Marius thanks Eponine for saving them and, rather than betraying Eponine, Cosette tells her father that it was she who screamed because of a mysterious man at the gate who ran away. Valjean now mistakenly fears that the men who were lurking in the street were with Javert. He plans to flee from France with Cosette in order to escape Javert. Marius is heartbroken at the thought of losing his love, as his compatriots prepare for battle ("One Day More").

Act Two

A barricade is being built in the streets of Paris. Marius sees Eponine and asks her to deliver a letter to Cosette; she agrees, even though it breaks her heart. On the Rue Plumet, Eponine meets Valjean and gives him the letter ("Building the Barricade"). He realizes that Marius is in love with Cosette and quickly exits. All alone in the city streets, Eponine laments the intensity of her feelings for Marius, who does not return her affection ("On My Own").

The barricade has been completed and, even though the revolutionaries will get no official help, they believe that the people will rise up to throw off the yoke of tyranny. Javert climbs the barricade, tells them of their enemies' plans and is called a liar by Gavroche, who knows the truth. Javert is tied up to be taken to a people's court, which he renounces ("Javert at the Barricade"). Eponine, fatally wounded, climbs the barricade and dies in Marius' arms as he weeps and tells her of his deep love and admiration ("A Little Fall of Rain"). Valjean then arrives to help and protect Marius, unbeknownst to him.

There is an attack, and Valjean helps the students. Enjolras thanks him and joins in officially welcoming him ("The First Attack"). Because of this, Enjolras gives Valjean the opportunity to take care of Javert. Valjean, however, shows a mercy that was never reciprocated to him, cutting the lawman's bonds and urging him to flee before the others find out. Javert tells Valjean that, even if he is freed, he will continue his efforts to capture Valjean, but he responds that the policeman is free unconditionally and that, if they survive, he can find him on Rue Plumet. Javert leaves, his faith shaken.

Later that night, the men drink and reflect on their situation. Valjean watches over Marius and hopes that he will survive the battle, for Cosette's sake ("Night"). The second attack begins. Marius and Valjean argue as to who will climb the barricade to pick up desperately needed ammunition from the corpses in the street. While they argue, Gavroche climbs the barricade in defiance and is shot to death ("The Second Attack").

The final battle begins, the revolutionaries refuse to give up and are all killed ("The Final Battle"). The only survivors are Valjean and a seriously wounded Marius. More determined than ever, Valjean carries Marius into the sewers. They come across Thenardier, who is looting corpses. Valjean collapses with exhaustion, and Thenardier steals Marius' ring from the unconscious man's finger ("Dog Eat Dog"). When he recognizes Valjean, Thenardier flees. A revived Valjean, still carrying the body of Marius, continues his journey through the sewers. As they emerge, they are confronted by Javert, and Valjean pleads to be allowed to save the boy's life before surrendering himself. Javert tries to reconcile Valjean's letting him go free when he could have taken his revenge; the lawman releases his nemesis. In shock, Javert's world is totally shaken as he wanders to a bridge, where he decides to commit suicide by throwing himself into the river ("Javert's Suicide").

Several months later, although delusional and haunted by the ghosts of his dead friends, Marius is slowly recovering ("Café Song"). Encouraged by Cosette, he becomes stronger and stronger. The young lovers proclaim their feelings for one another, and Marius acknowledges his debt to Valjean. With Cosette out of the room, Valjean reveals his plans of leaving forever, but not before he tells Marius of his past crime, punishment and breaking of parole. He insists that he must leave in order to protect Cosette from his dark past ("Marius and Cosette").

Now at Marius and Cosette's wedding, the Thenadiers arrive, disguised as the Baron and Baroness de Thenard. Posing as nobility, they decline Marius' request to leave, replying that, for a small price, they will reveal who saved him the night the barricade fell. When a ring is revealed, Marius informs Cosette that Valjean is his savior; they must go see him. The Thenadiers stay behind and celebrate with stolen silver ("The Wedding").

We transition to Valjean, alone in his room, waiting to die. The spirit of Fantine appears to tell him that, because he fulfilled his promise by raising Cosette, he will finally be with God. Marius and Cosette then enter, and Marius thanks Valjean for saving his life. Valjean gives Cosette his last confession: the story of those who loved her. The ghosts of Fantine and Eponine take Valjean to his glory while Valjean reminds Cosette that love is of highest importance... and they will all be free when "tomorrow" comes ("Epilogue").



Cast Size: Medium (11 to 20 performers)
Cast Type: Ensemble Cast
Dance Requirements: None

Character Breakdown

Jean Valjean

Jean Valjean is the hero of the show. It is his life journey that we follow.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: B4
Vocal range bottom: G#2

Javert is the inspector who serves as antagonist to Jean Valjean. Javert is unswerving in his belief that men cannot change for the better.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: F#4
Vocal range bottom: F2
The Bishop Of Digne

The Bishop is a good man who saves Valjean’s soul through showing compassion.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: E4
Vocal range bottom: A2

Fantine is the beautiful, young girl who, abandoned by her lover, is left to fend for herself and her daughter, Cosette. She is a brave woman defeated by life who clings to her dignity and is sustained by her love for her daughter, sacrificing everything for the young Cosette.

Gender: female
Vocal range top: Eb5
Vocal range bottom: F3
The Foreman

The Foreman begins Fantine on her desperate, downward spiral.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: D4
Vocal range bottom: D3

Bamatabois is the customer who taunts Fantine into violence. He is a wealthy, dissolute young man who thinks of himself as a gentleman, even dressing in expensive clothes.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: D5
Vocal range bottom: D3

Fauchelevant is the victim of the cart crash.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: Eb4
Vocal range bottom: B3
Little Cosette

Young Cosette is Fantine’s daughter and the Thénardiers’ ward. She has been forced into child labor. She is underfed, beaten by Madame Thénardier, and bullied by Eponine.

Gender: female
Vocal range top: C5
Vocal range bottom: A3

Thénardier is the true villain of Les Misérables. He is the embodiment of evil. He is a thief, a liar, a cheat, and steals valuables from the dead with no remorse.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: C2
Madame Thenardier

She is married to Thénardier. Together, Madame Thénardier and Thénardier con the world as partners in crime. They were made for each other, and although she complains about him, she loves him dearly.

Gender: female
Vocal range top: D5
Vocal range bottom: G#3
Young Eponine

Young Eponine is the pampered daughter of the Thénardiers. She does little except taunt Young Cosette.

Gender: female

Gavroche is Thénardier’s son. He is left to fend for himself and lives by his wits in the streets of Paris. Gavroche is brave, witty, and arrogant, with a fantastic, unchanged voice.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: G5
Vocal range bottom: B3

Eponine is the Thénardiers’ daughter. Living hand to mouth, she survives by helping her father in his life of crime. She is a young girl who is streetwise and tough but also sensitive and lonely.

Gender: female
Vocal range top: E5
Vocal range bottom: F3

Cosette is Fantine’s strong-willed, loving daughter. She is an intelligent, inquiring, personable girl; she is not in any sense a sappy, romantic heroine.

Gender: female
Vocal range top: C6
Vocal range bottom: Bb3

A member of Thénardier’s gang of thieves. Montparnasse is handsome and dangerous (he kills with a knife).

Gender: male
Vocal range top: C#4
Vocal range bottom: C#3

A member of Thénardier’s gang of thieves.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: E4
Vocal range bottom: E3

A member of Thénardier’s gang of thieves. A genuine gangster, Brujon is stupid and evil.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: C#4
Vocal range bottom: B3

A member of Thénardier’s gang of thieves. Claquesous is tough, dangerous, and secretive.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: E4
Vocal range bottom: C4

Enjolras is the student leader. He is handsome, brave, and daring, although youthful. He combines his revolutionary ideals with strong, charismatic leadership. Victor Hugo described him as “a thinker and a man of action.”

Gender: male
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: A2

Marius is the romantic hero of the story. He is impulsive, passionate, willful, and headstrong. His moods change according to his circumstances. He is sweet and tender but also capable of great courage and compassion.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: Ab4
Vocal range bottom: A2

Member of the ABC society, a secret society of students and workers. Combeferre is the philosopher and believer in peace. He is gentle, humane, strong, and brave.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: D4
Vocal range bottom: E3

Member of the ABC society, a secret society of students and workers. Feuilly is a worker who is a self-educated orphan. He is an affectionate, warm, and poetic believer in "nationality."

Gender: male
Vocal range top: D4
Vocal range bottom: D3

Member of the ABC society, a secret society of students and workers. Courfeyrac is a youthful, passionate, and fearless student.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: Eb4
Vocal range bottom: E3

Member of the ABC society, a secret society of students and workers. Joly is an eccentric and light-hearted (although sometimes morbid) medical student. His name is derived from the English word “jolly.”

Gender: male
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: D3

Member of the ABC Society, a secret society of students and workers. Grantaire is the opposite of Enjolras. He believes in nothing. Although he admires Enjolras, he loves to mock him.

Gender: male

Member of the ABC society, a secret society of students and workers. Lesgles is a cheerful, laughing-at-life (but unlucky) student. He is a close friend of Joly.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: B3
Jean Prouvaire

Member of the ABC society, a secret society of students and workers. Prouvaire is a kind, soft-spoken, and, at the right moments, strong and masterful poet and student of social studies.

Gender: male
Vocal range top: Eb4
Vocal range bottom: D3
An Army Officer
Gender: male

The Chain Gang, Warders, Constables, The Poor, Facroty Workers, Sailors, Prostitutes, Pimps, Drinkers, Wedding Guests, Etc.

Full Song List
Les Misérables: Overture/Work Song
Les Misérables: Valjean Arrested/Valjean Forgiven
Les Misérables: What Have I Done?
Les Misérables: At the End of the Day
Les Misérables: I Dreamed a Dream
Les Misérables: The Docks (Lovely Ladies)
Les Misérables: Cart Crash (Who Am I?)
Les Misérables: Fantine's Death (Come to Me)
Les Misérables: Confrontation
Les Misérables: Little Cosette (Castle on a Cloud)
Les Misérables: The Innkeeper's Song (Master of the House)
Les Misérables: The Bargain (The Thenardier Waltz of Treachery)
Les Misérables: The Beggars (Look Down)
Les Misérables: Stars
Les Misérables: The ABC Café (Red and Black)
Les Misérables: The People's Song (Do You Hear the People Sing?)
Les Misérables: Rue Plumet (In My Life)
Les Misérables: A Heart Full of Love
Les Misérables: Attack on Rue Plumet
Les Misérables: One Day More
Les Misérables: Upon These Stones (Building the Barricade)
Les Misérables: On My Own
Les Misérables: Upon These Stones (At the Barricade)
Les Misérables: Javert at the Barricade/Little People
Les Misérables: The First Attack
Les Misérables: A Little Fall of Rain
Les Misérables: Drink With Me
Les Misérables: Bring Him Home
Les Misérables: Dog Eats Dog
Les Misérables: Javert's Suicide
Les Misérables: Turning
Les Misérables: Empty Chairs at Empty Tables
Les Misérables: Wedding Chorale/Beggars at the Feast
Les Misérables: Finale

Show History


Les Misérables is a musical based on the novel of the same name by French poet and playwright, Victor Hugo. The 1862 novel is considered by many to be one of the greatest novels of the nineteenth century.

French songwriter, Alain Boublil, had the inspiration to adapt Hugo's novel into a musical while at a performance of the musical, Oliver!, in London. When the Artful Dodger appeared on stage, the idea of Gavroche narrating the story of Les Misérables came to mind. He pitched the concept to composer, Claude-Michel Schönberg, who then began developing a rough synopsis.


Les Misérables, a sung-through musical based on the novel of the same name, had its world premiere in September of 1980 at the Palais des Sports in Paris. The production was directed by filmmaker Robert Hossein and ran for over 100 performances.

Following the world premiere run of the original French version, Herbert Kretzmer and James Fenton were given the task of adapting the material into English. This new version, produced by Cameron Mackintosh and directed by Trevor Nunn and John Caird, opened on October 8, 1985, at the Barbican Arts Centre in London. The original cast included such notables as Colm Wilkinson, Michael Ball and Patti LuPone.

On December 4, 1985, the world premiere production of the English version transferred to the Palace Theatre in London. It eventually moved once more on April 3, 2004, to the Queen's Theatre. It has become the second longest-running musical in the world and the second longest-running show on the West End.

Les Misérables made its journey "across the pond" in December of 1986. The musical received its U.S. premiere and out-of-town tryout at the Kennedy Center's Opera House in Washington, D.C. It then premiered on Broadway on March 12, 1987, at The Broadway Theatre. In October of 1990, the production moved to the Imperial Theatre, where it subsequently played over 6,500 performances. The original production closed on May 18, 2003, and has become the third longest-running Broadway musical in history.

Only three years later, a limited revival began on November 9, 2006, at the Broadhurst Theatre. This cast included Norm Lewis, Gary Beach and Celia-Keenan Bolger. The production closed on January 6, 2008.

Since its premiere in the 1980s, Les Misrables has also received several significant concert performances, international mountings and national U.S. tours. The original North American tour ran for seventeen years and over 7,000 performances. As of 2012, four different U.S. national tours have been produced.

Cultural Influence

  • The musical has had more concurrent productions (fifteen at one time) than any other musical in history, as confirmed by the Guinness Book of Records.
  • "Britain's Got Talent" winner and pop culture sensation, Susan Boyle, performed Fantine's anthem, "I Dreamed a Dream," to worldwide acclaim in 2009. Almost overnight, the taping of her performance became one of the most popular videos on YouTube and has amassed over 200 million views since.
  • The musical has won over 70 major theatre awards, including an Olivier, a Tony and a Grammy.
  • Les Misérables has been translated into 21 different languages, including Flemish, Estonian and Castillian.
  • A film adaptation of the stage musical, featuring Hugh Jackman and Anne Hathaway, was released at Christmas of 2012.
  • Victor Hugo's great classic, Les Misérables, was called "one of the best sellers of the ages." Within 24 hours of publication in 1862, the first Paris edition of 7,000 copies was completely sold out.

  • After Colm Wilkinson sang "Bring Him Home" from Les Misérables for the first time in rehearsal, director Trevor Nunn said, "See? I told you this show is about God." One of the actors responded, "Yes, but you didn't tell us you engaged him to sing it."
  • The following recordings are available in English: the Original London Cast, the Original Broadway Cast, the Complete Symphonic Recording, the Tenth Anniversary London Concert, the Twenty-fifth Anniversary UK Tour Cast and the Twenty-fifth Anniversary London Concert.

Critical Reaction

"Les Misérables has become an unmistakable part of our theatregoing consciousness."
– Talkin' Broadway

"On the most basic level... the show is a marvel of skillful adaptation. The French authors merit an honorary degree in narrative surgery for their abridgment, which loses nothing crucial in the plot, and for the clarity of the storytelling."
– Variety

"One of the reasons for the overwhelming popularity is that the majesty of Hugo's story, adapted here by Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schonberg, is matched by the majesty of their score. Its melodies are as grandiose as the story, stirring, tuneful and totally capturing the emotion of the moment."
– Associated Press

Tony® Award

1987 - Best Featured Actress in a Musical, Nominee (Judy Kuhn)
1987 - Musical, Winner (Cameron Mackintosh (producer))
1987 - Best Scenic Design, Winner (John Napier)
1987 - Original Score, Winner (Claude-Michel Schonberg, Herbert Kretzmer, and Alain Boubil (music and lyrics))
1987 - Best Costume Design, Nominee (Andreane Neofitou)
1987 - Actor (Musical), Nominee (Colm Wilkinson)
1987 - Scenic Design, Winner (John Napier)
1987 - Best Lighting Design, Winner (David Hersey)
1987 - Actor (Musical), Nominee (Terrance Mann)
1987 - Best Musical, Winner (Les Miserables)
1987 - Best Direction Of A Musical, Winner (Trevor Nunn & John Caird)
1987 - Book Of A Musical, Winner (Alain Boubil and Claude-Michel Schonberg)
1987 - Best Book Of A Musical, Winner (Alain Boublil, Claude- Michel Schonberg)
1987 - Costume Design, Nominee (Andreane Neofitou)
1987 - Best Original Score, Winner (music byClaude-Michel Schonberg; Lyrics byHerbert Kretmer; French text by Alain Boublil)
1987 - Direction Of A Musical, Winner (Tevor Nunn and John Caird)
1987 - Best Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Terrence Mann)
1987 - Featured Actor In A Musical, Winner (Michael Maguire)
1987 - Best Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Colm Wilkinson)
1987 - Featured Actress In A Musical, Winner (Frances Ruffelle)
1987 - Best Featured Actress in a Musical, Winner (Frances Ruffelle)
1987 - Featured Actress In A Musical, Nominee (Judy Kuhn)
1987 - Best Featured Actor in a Musical, Winner (Michael Maguire)
1987 - Lighting Design, Winner (David Hersey)

Grammy Award

1987 - Best Musical Cast Show Album, Winner (Claude-Michel Schonberg and Herbert Kretzmer)

Drama Desk Award

1987 - Outstanding Orchestration, Winner (John Cameron)
1987 - Outstanding Set Design, Winner (John Napier)
1987 - Outstanding Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Colm Wilkinson)
1987 - Outstanding Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Colm Wilkinson)
1987 - Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical, Winner (Michael Maguire)
1987 - Outstanding Music, Winner (Claude-Michel Schonberg)
1987 - Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical, Nominee (Judy Kuhn)
1987 - Outstanding Musical, Winner (Les Miserables)
1987 - Outstanding Lighting Design, Nominee (David Hersey)
1987 - Oustanding Orchestration, Winner (John Cameron)
1987 - Outstanding Music, Winner (Chaude-Michel Schonberg)
1987 - Outstanding Set Design, Winner (John Napier)
1987 - Outstanding Musical, Winner ()

Outer Critics Circle

1987 - Best Broadway Musical, Winner (Les Miserables)

Outer Critics Circle Award

1987 - Best Directors, Winner (John Caird & Trevor Nunn)

Outer Critcs Circle Award

1987 - Best Set Design, Winner (John Napier)

NY Drama Critics Circle Award

1987 - Best Musical, Winner (Les Miserables)

Michael Maguire

1987 - Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical, Winner (Drama Desk Award)




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A new production of
Based on a novel by VICTOR HUGO
Original French Text by ALAIN BOUBLIL and JEAN-MARC NATEL
Additional material by JAMES FENTON
Adapted and originally directed by TREVOR NUNN and JOHN CAIRD
Orchestrations by JOHN CAMERON*
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Original London Production by CAMERON MACKINTOSH and

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