Parade
The tragic, true story of the trial and lynching of a man wrongly accused of murder is brought to theatrical life.
Show Essentials
10
Roles
+ Ensemble
R
Rated
2
Acts

Full Synopsis

Act One

Marietta, Georgia. 1862. A young Confederate soldier bids farewell to his lover, as he prepares to leave and fight for the honor of his Southland ("The Old Red Hills of Home"). Time leaps forward to Confederate Memorial Day of 1913 in Atlanta, Georgia, as this soldier – now much older – joins with the townspeople to commemorate the glory of the Old South.

Elsewhere in town, Lucille Frank urges her husband, Mr. Leo Frank, to have a picnic with her for Confederate Memorial Day. Leo, a northern Jew, is uncomfortable being a part of Southern culture. Lucille, a Southern Jew, pushes him to try. Leo explains that as Superintendent for Lucille's uncle's pencil factory, he does not have the luxury of having a day off. Leo leaves for work, focused on saving money to raise a child with Lucille.

In the streets of Atlanta, the townspeople continue to voice their eternal pride ("The Dream of Atlanta"). Governor John Slaton refuses to accept defeat for Georgians' efforts in the Civil War. Leo Frank, meanwhile, expresses his discontent with the South. As a college-educated Jew, he feels alienated and out of place in ("How Can I Call This Home").

Frankie Epps, a good-looking boy, appears. He is trying to convince Mary Phagan to go with him to the movies. Mary explains that her mother would never let her go with him and that he should ask Iola Stover. Mary quickly departs for the factory to pick up her pay for the week ("The Picture Show").

At the Factory, Leo is working away crunching numbers. We see Lucille, at home, expressing admiration for her Leo's ambition and strength ("Leo at Work / What Am I Waiting For?"). Leo is interrupted from work when Mary Phagan arrives. He pays her, and she begins to ask him a question. All goes dark.

Policemen arrive at the Frank residence and explain that a tragedy has occurred. Mary Phagan has been found dead in the basement of the pencil factory. They claim that Newt Lee, the factory's night watchman, found her body ("Interrogation: I Am Trying to Remember..."). Meanwhile, Mrs. Phagan asks an officer about her daughter, who did not come home the night before.

The police are holding both Leo Frank and Newt Lee for questioning about the murder of Mary Phagan. Britt Craig, a sneaky reporter for the local paper, overhears details about the new case... and the suspected murderer, Mr. Leo Frank ("Big News!"). Leo is in a cell and angry that he is being fed greasy food. Lucille visits him with clean clothes. Leo is sure that he will be let out by night and he sends his wife home.

At a cemetery in Marietta, mourners are burying the body of Mary Phagan. Britt Craig is covering the story. Frankie Epps recalls details of Mary's ebullient personality. Family and friends mourn her murder as a senseless act; Frankie vows vengeance upon Mary's murderer ("Funeral Sequence: There Is a Fountain / It Don't Make Sense").

At the Governor's Mansion, Hugh Dorsey and Governor Slaton discuss the recent murder. The governor is afraid of anyone in public office being accused of having a part in the crime. He orders Dorsey to convict a murderer hastily, as insurance.

The next morning, Dorsey questions Newt Lee, who is deep in prayer. After deciding that Newt Lee will not suffice as a convict for Mary Phagan's murder, Dorsey decides to pin the act on Leo Frank. The reporter, Craig, revels in blaming Leo Frank and slandering his Jewish identity ("Real Big News").

Luther Rosser, Leo's hired lawyer, visits him in jail. He explains how townspeople are stepping forward to give witness about Leo's sexual deviance. Leo is to be indicted for the murder of Mary Phagan. Elsewhere, the townspeople are urged by Craig to voice negative statements about Leo's character, provoked by the manipulative reporter. Dorsey further builds the case against Leo by blackmailing Jim Conley, a black factory janitor, into providing testimony against the defendant.

Townspeople begin to harass Lucille Frank and accuse her of protecting him; she shoos them away and defends her husband to Craig. She is sure that all of the slanderous claims are false ("You Don't Know This Man"). Even so, Lucille visits Leo in jail that evening to explain that she'll be leaving town for his trial. Leo pleads for her not to leave.

The trial begins ("The Trial Pt. 1: It Is Time Now). Dorsey opens with testimony from Frankie Epps. He recounts Mary's final evening for the jury, even lying about certain details ("Trial Pt. III: Frankie's Testimony"). In his testimony, Frankie claims that Mary was scared of Leo Frank because he was sexually harassing her. Iola Stover and a group of young girls further present testimony of Leo being a philanderer who lures them into his office to seduce them ("Trial Pt. IV: The Factory Girls / Come Up to My Office").

Minnie McKnight, the Frank's maid, also testifies against Leo. She lies and describes his behavior as odd and suspicious on the night of the murder. Then, Mrs. Phagan takes the stand and surprisingly expresses forgiveness to Leo Frank ("Trial Pt. VI: My Child Will Forgive Me").

The final testimony is from Jim Conley, who blatantly paints Leo as Mary's killer. Jim tells a story of how Leo Frank coerced him into helping him lure the young girl upstairs and hide her body following the murder ("Trial Pt. VII: That's What He Said"). Dumbfounded and shocked by all that he has heard, Leo calmly declares his innocence – against the wishes of his lawyer ("Trial Pt. VIII: Leo's Statement: 'It's Hard to Speak My Heart'").

Following a brief deliberation by the jury, Leo is found guilty and sentenced to hang. Citizens on the courthouse steps erupt with cheer.

Act Two

Judge Roan has just sentenced Leo Frank. As Leo begins flipping through the pages of several books in his jail cell, in a merciful attempt to appeal the decision, we happen upon two black people, Riley and Angela. As they polish shoes and iron the wash, New and Conley join in to lament the injustice brought upon African Americans in the South ("A Rumblin' and a Rollin'").

Leo's attorney arrives at the jail. He is getting concerned about Leo's behavior and insists that he handle all of the legal proceedings. Frustrated, Leo lashes out and fires his attorney. He is left alone with his law books. Later that same week, Lucille visits Leo; he is busy writing his appeal. She reveals to him that she has been talking with the local reporter, Britt Craig. Leo feels betrayed and demands that she not talk with him anymore ("Do It Alone").

At the Georgia Governor's Mansion, there is a tea dance in progress. Governor John Slaton is dancing with his wife, Sally. As the crowd watches, Tom Watson approaches Dorsey to voice his passionate support for Dorsey's policies. Watson reveals that he wants to make Dorsey the next governor. Slaton, meanwhile, is dancing through a rotation of partners around the floor. Eventually, he is unknowingly paired with Lucille ("Pretty Music"). When she reveals herself to him, the two begin discussing Leo Frank's trial. As the dance goes on, so does the discussion. The discussion escalates; Lucille storms out.

We now join Jude Roan – much more frail in health and appearance – preparing to write a letter to the governor. In it, he expresses his doubt, concern and fear for the decision to convict Mr. Leo Frank. He urges the Governor to reexamine the case ("Letter to the Governor").

Upon hearing the governor's decision to re-examine the case, Lucille excitedly phones Leo at prison to let him know the news. Leo, finding a new sudden sense of hope and positivity in humanity, celebrates in his prison cell ("This Is Not Over Yet").

Elsewhere, the governor is holding his own interviews of the trial's witnesses with Lucille. The two methodically dissect every testimony and claim. Quickly, the truth is coming to light and Governor Slaton is becoming convinced. Their final visit is to Conley, who is currently working on a chain gang ("Blues: Feel the Rain Fall"). As Slaton disputes each one of Conley's claims, the two get into a heated exchange. Slaton, satisfied with Conley's response, leaves.

We find Slaton with his wife some time later, preparing to head to the gallows. With hesitation, Sally encourages him, and they depart. Slaton has an announcement: he has moved Mr. Leo Frank to a new, secure location and decided to commute his sentence from death penalty to imprisonment for life. An angry mob, led by Watson, marches and riots. Chaos ensues ("Where You Will Stand When the Flood Comes?").

On a prison farm, Leo is readjusting to the new surroundings. Lucille comes to visit. As a favor, the warden has allowed Leo and Lucille to have lunch together for the first time in two years. As the two picnic together, they reflect on all that has happened and speculate on what the future might have in store ("All the Wasted Time").

Later that night, Leo is asleep in his cell. A group of masked men arrive and break into Leo's cell, tying up and taking him. As the morning dawn breaks, Leo is tied to a noose that hangs from an oak tree, standing on a table and speaking with his captors. The men poke and prod him; they urge Leo to confess to the murder. Leo refuses to speak a lie but asks that they deliver his wedding ring to Lucille. They agree. After a brief prayer, Leo is lynched.

A brief time later, Craig visits Lucille at home. He informs her of the news and delivers the ring. She sends him away. As Lucille stands, holding her husband's wedding ring, we see a flashback to the fateful moment: Mary Phagan wishes Mr. Frank a "Happy Memorial Day," Leo nods, and the two disappear. The citizens of Atlanta then appear, waving their flags and cheering on the parade. Lucille turns to watch as the lights fade ("Sh'ma & Finale").

Casting

Casting

Cast Size: Flexible Cast Size
Cast Type: Ensemble Cast
Dance Requirements: None

Character Breakdown

Judge Roan
Serves as the Judge on the infamous trial. Motivated by bigotry and racism, he is dangerously committed to the ideals of the Confederacy. White Georgian.
Gender: male
Age: 60 to 70
Vocal range top: D4
Vocal range bottom: B2
Lucille Frank
Gentle and mousy, but resourceful and resilient. Despite her husband's feelings, she is a true Southerner through and through but can see through the deception. A White Jew from Georgia.
Gender: female
Age: 21 to 28
Vocal range top: G3
Vocal range bottom: E5
Leo Frank
Our story's tragic protagonist accused of murder. As National Pencil Factory Superintendent, Leo is neurotic and a serial pessimist. Though married to Lucielle, he is physically and emotionally displaced. A White Jew from the North.
Gender: male
Age: 25 to 35
Vocal range top: F4
Vocal range bottom: Gb2
Hugh Dorsey
Atlanta's District Attorney. He is a devout Christian, who is brute and manipulative at times. Hungry for political success and recognition. White Georgian.
Gender: male
Age: 35 to 45
Vocal range top: F4
Vocal range bottom: B2
Gov. John Slaton
As the Governor of Georgia, he is highly concerned with public perception. Flirtatious and fun at times. Strives to maintain his values. White Southerner.
Gender: male
Age: 35 to 45
Vocal range top: F4
Vocal range bottom: Bb2
Frankie Epps
A charming and simple man, he is Mary's devoted friend. Playful and flirtatious. White Georgian.
Gender: male
Age: 14 to 17
Vocal range top: Bb4
Vocal range bottom: Bb2
Mary Phagan
A factory worker at the National Pencil Factory who is murdered. She is very innocent but has moments of sassiness and playfulness. White Georgian.
Gender: female
Age: 13 to 13
Vocal range top: D5
Vocal range bottom: Eb4
Jim Conley
A cleaning supervisor at National Pencil Factory. Secretly, he is a convict on the run. Pompous showman with a strong build. Black Georgian.
Gender: male
Age: 20 to 30
Vocal range top: Bb4
Vocal range bottom: D3
Newt Lee
He is the night watchman at National Pencil Factory. A bit too old to possess the job. Physically intimidating, but a gentle giant. Black Georgian.
Gender: male
Age: 50 to 60
Vocal range top: Db4
Vocal range bottom: Bb2
Britt Craig
A washed up reporter who can often be found three sheets to the wind. Weaselly and desperate for his 'big break.' White Georgian.
Gender: male
Age: 25 to 35
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: Eb3
Ensemble
Chain Gang; Factory Girls (Essie, Iola Stover, Monteen); Guards/Policemen (Officer Ivey, Detective Starnes, Mr. Peavy); Residents Of Georgia (Angela, Judge Roan, Jurors, Luther Rosser, Minola Mcknight, Mrs. Phagan, Old Soldier, Reporters, Riley, Sally Slaton, Young Soldier)
Tom Watson
Full Song List
Parade: The Old Red Hills Of Home
Parade: The Dream Of Atlanta
Parade: How Can I Call This Home?
Parade: The Picture Show
Parade: Leo At Work/What Am I Waiting For?
Parade: Interrogation
Parade: Big News!
Parade: Real Big News
Parade: You Don't Know This Man
Parade: The Trial
Parade: Do It Alone
Parade: Pretty Music
Parade: This Is Not Over Yet
Parade: Feel The Rain
Parade: Where Will You Stand When The Flood Comes?
Parade: All The Wasted Time

Show History

Inspiration


Harold Prince commissioned composer/lyricist Jason Robert Brown and playwright Alfred Uhry to write what he called an American opera based on the story of Leo Frank, a Jewish factory owner falsely accused and convicted of murdering a young girl in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1913.

Bookwriter Alfred Uhry has said about the inspiration for Parade:

"Southern extended families are prone to telling stories and so are Jewish ones. Mine was both, so I got a double dose. I grew up hearing about the quirks of distant relatives, in-laws, and a whole network of people I didn't know. They all came with stories attached. But nobody mentioned Leo Frank. Some of the family even walked out of the room if the name came up. I found this confusing, because I knew that my Great Uncle Sig had been his employer, and Lucille Frank was my grandmother's friend. Due to this hush-hush policy, I developed a fascination for the case, which has lasted all these years and which led to the idea for Parade."

Productions


Parade was first produced on Broadway at the Vivian Beaumont Theater on December 17, 1998. The production was directed by Harold Prince and closed February 28, 1999, after only 39 previews and 84 regular performances. It starred Brent Carver as Leo Frank, Carolee Carmello as Lucille Frank and Christy Carlson Romano as Mary Phagan.

The production then had a U.S. national tour in 2000. It starred David Pittu as Leo, Andrea Burns as Lucille, Keith Byron Kirk as Jim Conley and Kristen Bowden as Mary Phagan.

Critical Reaction

"Carries you through the gamut of emotion while you're in the theatre, and it stays with you long after you've left."
– Washington Square News



"Stakes claim to becoming a new, vital form of opera in America."
– Chicago Tribune

Drama Desk Award

1999 - Outstanding Music, Winner (Jason Robert Brown)
1999 - Outstanding Lighting Design, Nominee (Howell Binkley)
1999 - Outstanding Book of a Musical, Winner (Alfred Uhry)
1999 - Outstanding Musical, Winner ()
1999 - Outstanding Sound Design, Nominee (Jonathan Deans)
1999 - Outstanding Actor in a Musical, Winner (Brent Carver)
1999 - Outstanding Orchestrations, Winner (Don Sebesky)
1999 - Outstanding Actress in a Musical, Winner (Carolee Carmello)
1999 - Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Rufus Bonds)
1999 - Outstanding Choreography, Nominee (Patricia Birch)
1999 - Outstanding Director Of A Musical, Nominee (Harold Prince)
1999 - Outstanding Orchestrations, Winner (Don Sebesky)
1999 - Outstanding Actor in a Musical, Winner (Brent Carver)
1999 - Outstanding Music, Winner (Jason Robert Brown)
1999 - Outstanding Actress in a Musical, Winner (Carolee Carmello)
1999 - Outstanding Lyrics, Nominee (Jason Robert Brown)
1999 - Outstanding Book of a Musical, Winner (Alfred Uhry)
1999 - Outstanding Set Design of a Musical, Nominee (Riccardo Hernandez)
1999 - Outstanding Musical, Winner (Parade)

Tony® Award

1999 - Scenic Design, Nominee (Riccardo Hernandez)
1999 - Best Musical, Nominee (Parade)
1999 - Best Book Of A Musical, Winner (Alfred Uhry)
1999 - Book Of A Musical, Winner (Alfred Uhry)
1999 - Best Original Score, Winner (Jason Robert Brown)
1999 - Choreography, Nominee (Patricia Birch)
1999 - Best Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Brent Carver)
1999 - Direction Of A Musical, Nominee (Harold Prince)
1999 - Best Actress in a Musical, Nominee (Carolee Carmello)
1999 - Leading Actor In A Musical, Nominee (Brent Carver)
1999 - Best Scenic Design, Nominee (Riccardo Hernandez)
1999 - Leading Actress In A Musical, Nominee (Carolee Carmello)
1999 - Best Choreography, Nominee (Patricia Birch)
1999 - Musical, Nominee (Lincoln Center Theater, Andre Bishop, Bernard Gersten, LIVENT (U.S.) Inc. (producers))
1999 - Best Direction Of A Musical, Nominee (Harold Prince)
1999 - Orchestrations, Nominee (Don Sebesky)
1999 - Best Orchestrations, Nominee (Don Sebesky)
1999 - Original Score, Winner (Jason Robert Brown (music and lyrics))

Outer Critics Circle Award

1999 - Outstanding Broadway Musical, Nominee (Parade)
1999 - Outstanding Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Brent Carver)

NY Drama Critics Circle Award

1999 - Best Musical, Winner (Parade)

Connect

Billing

Based on the true story of the trial and lynching of Leo Frank

Requirements

You must give the authors/creators billing credits, as specified in the Production Contract, in a conspicuous manner on the first page of credits in all programs and on houseboards, displays and in all other advertising announcements of any kind.
Percentages listed indicate required type size in relation to title size.
PARADE
(100%)
 
Book by
ALFRED UHRY
(50%)
Music & Lyrics by
JASON ROBERT BROWN
(50%)
Co-Conceived and Directed on Broadway by
HAROLD PRINCE
(50%)
 
**The names of the Composer/Lyricist, Bookwriter and Harold Prince shall be equal in size, type, coloring, boldness and prominence. No billing shall appear in type larger or more prominent than the billing to the Authors except for the title of the Play.**
The videotaping or other video or audio recording of this production is strictly prohibited

Included Materials

ItemQuantity Included
LIBRETTO/VOCAL BOOK25
PIANO CONDUCTOR'S SCORE ACT 11
PIANO CONDUCTOR'S SCORE ACT 21
PIANO VOCAL SCORE ACT 12
PIANO VOCAL SCORE ACT 22

Production Resources

Resource
LOGO PACK
LOGO PACK DIGITAL
PRODUCTIONPRO
REFERENCE RECORDING
TRANSPOSITIONS-ON-DEMAND
VIRTUAL STAGE MANAGER

STANDARD ORCHESTRATION

InstrumentationDoubling
BASS(ACOUSTIC BASS)
CELLO
HORN
KEYBOARD 1
PERCUSSIONCHIMES , CROTALES , DRUM KIT , FINGER CYMBALS , GLOCKENSPIEL , MILITARY SNARE DRUM , TIMPANI , TRIANGLE , TUBULAR BELLS
REED 1Bb CLARINET , BASS CLARINET , CLARINET IN A
VIOLA
VIOLIN

ALTERNATE ORCHESTRATION

InstrumentationDoubling
ALT: BASS
ALT: CELLO
ALT: FULL SCORE VOL 1 OF 4
ALT: FULL SCORE VOL 2 OF 4
ALT: FULL SCORE VOL 3 OF 4
ALT: FULL SCORE VOL 4 OF 4
ALT: GUITAR
ALT: HORN 1
ALT: HORN 2
ALT: PERCUSSION 1
ALT: PERCUSSION 2
ALT: PERCUSSION 3
ALT: PIANO
ALT: REED 1 ALTO SAXOPHONE , CLARINET , FLUTE , PICCOLO , SOPRANO SAX
ALT: REED 2 ALTO SAXOPHONE , CLARINET , ENGLISH HORN , FLUTE , OBOE , SOPRANO SAX
ALT: REED 3 BASS CLARINET , CLARINET , SOPRANO SAX , TENOR SAXOPHONE
ALT: REED 4 BARITONE SAXOPHONE , BASS CLARINET , BASSOON , CLARINET , TENOR SAXOPHONE
ALT: TROMBONE
ALT: TRUMPET 1
ALT: TRUMPET 2
ALT: TUBA
ALT: VIOLA
ALT: VIOLIN 1
ALT: VIOLIN 2